Top Universities in USA:
University of California, Berkeley
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
University of Chicago
University of California, Los Angeles
University of Pennsylvania
University of California, San Diego
University of Michigan
Johns Hopkins University
University of Washington
University of Texas at Austin
Jesuit School of Theology of Santa Clara University
Glance at Market of Astrophysics:
Institutional budgets are critical in starting-up and developing capital-intensive and high technology sectors such as space. Government Budget Appropriations or Outlays for R&D (GBAORD) data are assembled by national authorities analysing their budget for R&D content and classifying them by “socio-economic objective”. These diverse objec- tives represent the intention of the government at the time of funding commitment, and a special category “explora- tion and exploitation of space” exists. Although the data provide only a partial picture of space investments (see note below), the long-term time-series provide useful trends on policy orientations.
In 2013, total civil GBAORD for space programmes for all OECD countries amounted to USD 19.2 billion PPP. The United States had the highest GBAORD for space programmes at USD 10.6 billion PPP, followed by the Russian Federation (USD 3.3 billion PPP), Japan (USD 2.2 billion PPP) and France (USD 1.7 billion PPP). The United States was also the country in which space programmes took the highest percentage of total civil GBAORD, at 16.9%, followed by France (10.4%) and Belgium (8.7%). The OECD-wide mean average represented 7.7% in 2013.
Compared to trends seen in previous editions of The Space Economy at a Glance, there is a global 2% decrease in GBAORD for space programmes for the OECD area in 2013. The share of space programmes in total civil GBAORD also decreased from 9.1% to 7.5%, mostly due to a decrease in the United States. However, there are no strong negative trends for a majority of countries, with a number of economies (France, Germany, Japan) having actually increased their outlays for space R&D in the last couple of years.
The global space sector is a high-technology niche with a complex ecosystem, which employed at least 900 000 persons around the world in 2013, including public
Administrations (space agencies, space departments in civil and defence-related organisations), the space manufacturing industry (building rockets, satellites, ground systems); direct suppliers to this industry (components), and the wider space services sector (mainly commercial satellite telecommunications). But these estimates do not take into account universities and research institutions, which also play a key role in R&D, as receivers of public contracts and initiators of much of the space sector’s innovation.
The acquisition and development of space capabilities remains a highly attractive strategic goal, and the number of countries and companies investing in space systems and their downstream applications continues to grow. Despite the economic crisis, institutional funding remained stable in 2013 on a global scale, with increased budgets in several OECD countries and emerging economies. Space often has a reputation for being expensive, but national investments represent only a very small percentage relative to GDP in all G20 countries. In the United States, the largest programme in the world, space represents only 0.3% of GDP and in France, less than 0.1% of GDP.
Although OECD countries accounted for the largest space budgets globally in 2013 (USD 52 billion, using purchasing power parities or PPPs), an increasing part of global space activities takes place outside of the OECD, particularly in Brazil, the Russian Federation, India and China (around USD 23.9 billion PPPs).
The space economy represented some USD 256.2 billion in revenues in 2013, divided between the space manufacturing supply chain (33%), satellite operators (8.4%) and consumer services (58%), including actors who rely on some satellite capacity for part of their revenues, such as direct-to-home satellite television services providers.