Market Analysis - Pollution Control 2019
Pollution Control 2019:
Pollution control is the process of reducing or eliminating the release of pollutants into the environment. It is regulated by various environmental agencies which establish pollutant discharge limits for air, water, and land.
Air Pollution and Treatment
Water Pollution and Treatment
Bioenergy and Biofuels
Human Impact on the Environment
Solid Waste Disposal
Waste Management and Treatment
Energy and Environment
Pollution Control Technologies and Devices
Pollution and Health Effects
Sustainability & Climate Change
Environmental Sustainability and Development
Pollution & its effects on environment
Importance & Scope:
Pollution control strategies can be divided into two categories, the control of particulate emissions and the control of gaseous emissions. There are many kinds of equipment which can be used to reduce particulate emissions. Physical separation of the particulates from the air using settling chambers, cyclone collectors, impinges, wet scrubbers, electrostatic precipitators,
Why London, UK?
Air pollution in the United Kingdom has long been considered a significant health issue. Many areas, including major cities like London are found to be significantly and regularly above legal and recommended levels. Air pollution in the UK is a major cause of diseases such as asthma, lung disease, stroke, and heart disease, and is estimated to cause forty thousand premature deaths each year, which is about 8.3% of deaths, while costing around £40 billion each year.
Air pollution is monitored and regulated. Air quality targets for particulates, nitrogen dioxide and ozone, set by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA), are mostly aimed at local government representatives responsible for the management of air quality in cities, where air quality management is the most urgent. In 2017, research by the Lancet Countdown on Health and Climate Change and the Royal College of Physicians revealed that air pollution levels in 44 cities in the UK are above the recommended World Health Organization guidelines.
The UK government has plans to improve pollution due to traffic, and is banning fossil fuel cars by 2040, and is phasing out the use of coal in electrical power generation.
The UK is currently required to report air quality data on an annual basis under the following European Directives: • The Council Directive on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe (2008/50/EC). • The Fourth Daughter Directive (2004/107/EC) under the Air Quality Framework Directive (1996/62/EC). This report provides background information on the pollutants covered by these Directives and the UK’s Air Quality Strategy; their sources and effects, the UK’s statutory monitoring networks, and the UK’s modelling methodology. The report then summarises the UK’s 2016 submission on ambient air quality to the European Commission, presenting air quality modelling data and measurements from national air pollution monitoring networks. The pollutants covered in this report are: • Sulphur dioxide (SO2) • Nitrogen oxides (NOx) comprising NO and NO2 • PM10 and PM2.5 particles • Benzene • 1,3-Butadiene • Carbon Monoxide (CO) • Metallic Pollutants • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) • Ozone (These data are reported on behalf of Defra (the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs) and the Devolved Administrations of Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. For the purposes of air quality monitoring and assessment of compliance with the above Directives, the UK is divided into 43 zones. The 2016 results are detailed in section 4 of this report and summarised below: • The UK met the limit value for hourly mean nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in all but two zones. • Six zones were compliant with the limit value for annual mean NO2. The remaining 37 exceeded this limit value. • Four zones exceeded the target value for benzo pyrene. • Three zones exceeded the target value for nickel. • All zones met both the target values for ozone; the target value based on the maximum daily eight-hour mean, and the target value based on the AOT40 statistic. iv • All zones except one exceeded the long-term objective for ozone, set for the protection of human health. This is based on the maximum daily eight-hour mean. • Five zones exceeded the long-term objective for ozone, set for the protection of vegetation. This is based on the AOT40 statistic. • All zones met the limit value for daily mean concentration of PM10 particulate matter, without the need for subtraction of the contribution from natural sources. • All zones met the limit value for annual mean concentration of PM10 particulate matter, without the need for subtraction of the contribution from natural sources. • All zones met the target value for annual mean concentration of PM2.5 particulate matter, the Stage 1 limit value, which came into force on 1st January 2015, and the Stage 2 limit value which must be met by 2020. • All zones met the EU limit values for sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, lead and benzene.
The UK Air Quality Strategy
The Environment Act 1995 required that a National Air Quality Strategy be published, containing policies for assessment and management of air quality. The Air Quality Strategy12 for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland was first published in March 1997. The overall objectives of the Strategy are to:
• Map out future ambient air quality policy in the United Kingdom in the medium term.
• Provide best practicable protection to human health by setting healthbased objectives for air pollutants.
• Contribute to the protection of the natural environment through objectives for the protection of vegetation and ecosystems.
• Describe current and future levels of air pollution.
• Establish a framework to help identify what we all can do to improve air quality.
The Strategy has established objectives for eight key air pollutants, based on the best available medical and scientific understanding of their effects on health, as well as taking into account relevant developments in Europe and the World Health Organisation. This Air Quality Objectives13 are at least as stringent as the limit values of the relevant EU Directives – in some cases, more so. The most recent review of the Strategy was carried out in 2007.
ational Air Quality Statistics and Indicators
The UK reports on the following two indicators as National Air Quality Statistics for ambient air:
• Annual average concentrations of particles and ozone. These two types of air pollution are believed to have a significant impact on public health.
• Number of days in the year when air pollution is ‘Moderate’ or higher. This may relate to any one of five key air pollutants and is based on the UK’s Daily Air Quality Index (see Section 2.2.4). From the 1st January 2012, PM2.5 particles replaced carbon monoxide in this suite of pollutants. The thresholds used to define ‘Moderate’ and higher pollution levels in the air quality index were also revised at the beginning of 2012.
The National Air Quality Statistics summary for 2016 was released on 23rd April 2017 and is available from the Defra website14 .
In August 2016, Defra published a revised edition of the England Natural Environment Indicators15. Indicator 11 for Environmental Quality and Health relates to air quality. This is based on:
• The average number of days per site when air pollution is ‘Moderate’ or higher – for urban and for rural sites,
• Regional mortality due to anthropogenic particulate air pollution, compared to the England national average (5.6% in 2010, which is being taken as the baseline year for this indicator).
The UK Government’s Public Health Outcomes Framework for England (published in 2012) recognises the burden of ill-health resulting from poor air quality as well as other public health concerns. This Framework sets out 60 health outcome indicators for England, and includes as an indicator:
• The fraction of annual all-cause adult mortality attributable to long-term exposure to current levels of anthropogenic particulate air pollution (measured as fine particulate matter, PM2.5) 16
This indicator is intended to enable Directors of Public Health to appropriately prioritise action on air quality in their local area. The indicator is calculated for each local authority in England based on modelled concentrations of fine particulate air pollution (PM2.5).
Local Authority Air Quality Management
Requirements for local air quality management are set out in Part IV of the Environment Act 1995, and the Environment (Northern Ireland) Order 200219 . Authorities are required to carry out regular ‘Review and Assessments’ of air quality in their area and take action to improve air quality when the objectives set out in regulation cannot be met by the specified dates. Local Authorities in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have completed five rounds of review and assessment against the Strategy’s objectives prescribed in the Air Quality (England) Regulations 200020, Air Quality (Scotland) Regulations 200021, Air Quality (Wales) Regulations 200022 and Air Quality (Northern Ireland) Regulations 200323, together with subsequent amendments24, 25, 26,27. The sixth round began in 2015.
When the Assessment Summary Review process identifies an exceedance of an Air Quality Strategy objective, the Local Authority must declare an ‘Air Quality Management Area’ (AQMA) and develop an Action Plan to tackle problems in the affected areas. Action Plans formally set out the measures the Local Authority proposes to take to work towards meeting the air quality objectives. They may include a variety of measures such as congestion charging, traffic management, planning and financial incentives.
Information on the UK’s AQMAs is summarised in Table 2-1 below. At present, 278 Local Authorities –71% of those in the UK – have one or more AQMAs. Some AQMAs are for more than one pollutant, and many Local Authorities have more than one AQMA. Most Air Quality Management Areas in the UK are in urban areas and have been established to address the contribution to air pollution from traffic emissions of nitrogen dioxide or PM10, or in some cases both. A small number are for SO2. There are no longer any AQMAs for benzene.
Proportions of AQMAs Resulting from Various Sources: NO2 Nitrogen Dioxide illustrating the proportion of AQMAs declared as a result of various different emission sources, for the three pollutants NO2, PM10 and SO2. Road transport is specified as the main source in 96% of the AQMAs declared for NO2. A further 2.7% of NO2 AQMAs result from road transport mixed with industrial sources, 0.5% from a combination of road transport, industry and domestic sources, 0.2% from industrial sources alone, and the remaining 0.6% from other or unspecified sources. Road transport is also the main source in the majority (76%) of AQMAs declared for PM10, but with industry and domestic sources accounting for a larger proportion than is the case for NO2. Most of the seven AQMAs declared for SO2 relate to industrial, domestic, or other non-traffic sources. Information on the UK’s Air Quality Management Areas is published on the Defra LAQM web pages (link above). Information is provided on each AQMA, together with a map of the area, where available. Proportions of AQMAs Resulting from Various Sources: NO2
Sulphur Dioxide SO2: Spatial Distribution in the UK
Shows NAEI estimates of total UK annual emission of oxides of nitrogen, in kilotonnes. Total NOx emissions have decreased substantially over the period shown. While long-running urban background sites show a general decrease in NO2 concentration as might be expected from the national emissions estimates, the same is not consistently true of urban traffic sites. It is likely that the trend in ambient NO2 concentration at each individual site depends, at least in part, on the quantity and type of traffic on the adjacent road. In July 2017, the Government launched its UK Plan for Tackling Roadside Nitrogen Dioxide Concentrations (see section 2.2.5 for more information on this).
PM2.5:Spatial Distribution shows the modelled annual mean urban roadside PM2.5 concentrations in 2016. No roadside locations had annual means greater than the target value of 25 µg m-3 ; even in London, the highest were in the range 15 - 20 µg m-3. Modelled annual mean background PM2.5 concentrations in 2016. Modelled concentrations were in the range 6-10 µg m-3 throughout most of England and Wales; concentrations were lower in most parts of Scotland and Northern Ireland. The areas with the highest modelled concentrations for 2016 were London, and the cities of the East and West Midlands; these areas had modelled Concentrations greater than 10 µg m-3 . Also visible are the effects of some major road routes in the middle of the country.
Top universities in UK:
- UCL - London's Global University
- Imperial College London
- Queen Mary University of London
- King's College London
- Brunel University London
- Royal Holloway, University of London
- Birkbeck, University of London
Top Societies Associated with Pollution Control Research around the Globe
· The International Biometrics Society (Australasian Region)
· The International Environmetrics Society (TIES)
· American Statistical Association Section on Statistics and the Environment
· International Environmental Modelling and Software Society (iEMSs)
· Royal Statistical Society Environmental Statistics Section
· Worldwide pollution Control Association
· Environmental Protection Agency
· National Association of Clean Air Agencies
· Air & Waste Management Association
· Cen SARA (Central States Air Resource Agencies)
· USDA Agricultural Air Quality Task Force
· Air Pollution Control Equipment Manufacturers Association of Australia
· Australian Marine Sciences Association
· Total Air Pollution Control (TAPC) Sydney, Australia
· The Australian Water Association
· Ecological Society of Australia
· The Environment Institute of Australia and New Zealand
· Food & Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations
· Australian Institute of Environmental Health
Pollution control 2019 is a perfect platform for environmentalists, researchers, scientists, decision makers and students to come together, compare findings, and discuss the science of the future. Share your research with an engaged audience of your peers from around the globe. Learn from scientific trail blazers who are designing more sustainable processes for achieving a pollution controlled environment.
Noble laureates, Presidents, Vice-presidents, Deans, Chairs, Co-chairs, Department Heads, Environmentalists, Researchers, PhD Students, Non-PhD Students, etc.. Vendors will have the opportunity to introduce the latest advancements in Environmental pollution control technologies to a diverse audience by becoming a conference sponsor via exhibits or workshops.